[WRITING TASK 1 TIPS] - HOW TO COMPARE & CONTRAST

 

Khi làm writing task 1, nếu bạn chú ý đọc kỹ đề, bạn sẽ thấy yêu cầu sau luôn luôn xuất hiện:
 

Make comparisons where relevant

Điều này có nghĩa là nếu bạn muốn đạt điểm cao trong writing task 1, chắc chắn bạn phải sử dụng ĐA DẠNG và THÀNH THẠO so sánh/đối chiếu (compare/contrast).
Dưới đây là 1 vài tips đơn giản ad dành cho bạn :D, đương nhiên là bạn phải luyện tập thật nhiều để trong vòng 20 phút bạn vừa lựa chọn được các key points để đưa vào bài làm của mình, vừa diễn đạt các key points đó một cách chính xác 😀 

1. Comparisons between sentences:

Bạn có thể bắt đầu 1 câu mới với từ/cụm từ hàm ý so sánh, làm như vậy tức là bạn đã so sánh câu bạn chuẩn bị viết với câu trước đó.
In contrast
The most popular form of holiday among the Welsh was self-catering with over 60% choosing to cook for themselves. In contrast, only 5 % of the English chose this form of vacation and hotel accommodation was much more popular at 48%.
In comparison
Almost 50% of the English, Scots and Northern Irish chose to stay in a hotel for their holiday. In comparison, staying in self-catering accommodation was much less popular with around 10% of people choosing this.
However
The general pattern was for hotel accommodation to be the most popular with around half the people choosing it. The majority of the Welsh, however, chose to stay in self-catering accommodation.
On the other hand
It is clear that a majority of the British chose to stay in hotel for their holiday. On the other hand, there was an exception to this because over 50% of the Welsh opted for self-catering accommodation.
Có 2 lưu ý khi dùng các từ/cụm từ này:
– Dùng dấu phẩy sau In contrast, In comparison
– However được đặt ở giữa câu, không đặt ở đầu câu
 
2. Comparisons within sentences

Bạn có thể so sánh các dữ kiện trong 1 câu. Các từ hay được sử dụng khi so sánh trong 1 câu là:
while
While there are 4 million miles of train lines in the UK, there are only 3 million in France.
whereas
Whereas the majority of the French prefer to travel to work by train, only a small minority of the British do.
although
Although 15% of the French read novels, only 5% of the British do.
but
Almost 25% of French females study maths with a private tutor, but nearly 60% study English with one.
 
3. Comparisons with more or less/fewer

Một trong những yêu cầu bắt buộc trong writing task 1 là bạn phải so sánh số liệu (numbers and nouns). Có 2 điểm ngữ pháp cần ghi nhớ:
Than
5% more girls chose to read books than go to cinema.
Fewer/less
Fewer mobiles phones were bought in 2013 than 2014.
Less oil was consumed in 2013 than 2014.
Note:
– Sau "more/less/fewer" chúng ta dùng "than"
– Nếu danh từ không đếm được, dùng less; danh từ đếm được, dùng fewer
 
4. Qualify your comparisons with much/far/slightly or a number

Một trong những cách làm cho bài viết của bạn hay và chính xác hơn là sử dụng more/less/fewer + much/far/numbers
Far fewer people chose to travel by train than by car. [Where's the detail?]
25% fewer people chose to travel by train than by car. [Better now we have detail and not just a comparison]
 
5. Comparisons with most or least/fewest

Không phải lúc nào bạn cũng so sánh/đối chiếu mọi thứ, nhưng có 2 số liệu mà bạn luôn phải quan tâm chú ý đứa vào bài viết của mình, đó là “the highest/lowest number”
The most popular form of entertainment in the UK was going to the cinema.
The least common form of transport was taking a taxi.
 
 5. Comparisons with similar or same or as…..as

Ngoài việc so sánh sự khác nhau, với những số liệu giống nhau bạn cũng có thể “make comparison”
Similar (to)
The percentage of females and males who studied languages at university were very similar.
A similar amount of gas and electricity was used domestically in homes.
The figures for 2012 were very similar to the figures for 2013.
Same as …as
The percentage of females who studied at university in 2011 was almost exactly the same as in 2012.
 
6. Comparisons with differ/different/difference

Còn đây là cách diễn đạt sự khác nhau giữa 2 đối tượng:
The amount of time spent at home differed by almost 25% according to gender.
There was a difference of over 25% in the amount of time males and females spent at home.
This figure was very different among males, only half of whom watched television. 
 
 7.  Comparisons with numbers

Cách so sánh các số liệu khác nhau:
[5 million] more/less/fewer
5 million fewer units of gas were sold in 2014.
Twice 
Twice the amount of gas was used for cooking in this period. [note that we use amount with uncountable nouns]
Three/four etc times 
Four times as many people chose to heat their house with electricity as with gas.
Half
Half the number of people chose to use gas as electricity.
Electricity was half as popular as gas for cooking.